griechische theater name

[21] Unique masks were also created for specific characters and events in a play, such as The Furies in Aeschylus' Eumenides and Pentheus and Cadmus in Euripides' The Bacchae. The masks were most likely made out of light weight, organic materials like stiffened linen, leather, wood, or cork, with the wig consisting of human or animal hair. The Greek's understanding of acoustics compares very favorably with the current state of the art[dubious – discuss]. Das antike griechische Theater Gliederung 1. Satyr plays dealt with the mythological subject matter of the tragedies, but in a purely comedic manner. Costuming would give off a sense of character, as in gender, age, social status, and class. Most costuming detail comes from pottery paintings from that time as costumes and masks were fabricated out of disposable material, so there are little to no remains of any costume from that time. Constructed around 303 BC, it is situated 4km southeastern of Kiato town in Corinth. TEL. [10] At the foot of the hill was a flattened, generally circular performance space with an average diameter of 78 feet[citation needed], known as the orchestra (literally "dancing place"[10]), where a chorus of typically 12 to 15 people[11] performed plays in verse accompanied by music. Illustrations of theatrical masks from 5th century display helmet-like masks, covering the entire face and head, with holes for the eyes and a small aperture for the mouth, as well as an integrated wig. Your email address will not be published. Athens Updates the Safety Measures in Light of COVID-19. For this reason, dramatic art is sometimes alluded to as "Sock and Buskin.". Nach dem Niedergang der attischen Demokratie integrierte der römische Staat die Formen des griechischen Theaters in sein Festwesen und baute das Theater zu einem massenwirksamen Instrument der Unterhaltung und der Repräsentation politischer Macht aus. Just behind the paraskenia was the proskenion ("in front of the scene"), which is similar to the modern day proscenium. Ancient Corinth was a city-state of antiquity. Keith Burt 07/04/2016 05/07/2019 Choral Acting, Chorus, Greek Chorus, Greek Theatre, Masks 4 thoughts on “ 20 Facts About Greek Theatre ” Pingback: Resources for Practitioners, Plays and Genres – Burt's Drama Dichter 4.1 Handlungsverlauf eines Stückes 4.2 Aristophanes 5. Schauspieler + Chor 4. After 465 BC, playwrights began using a backdrop or scenic wall, called the skênê (from which the word "scene" derives), that hung or stood behind the orchestra, and which also served as an area where actors could change their costumes. Their variations help the audience to distinguish sex, age, and social status, in addition to revealing a change in a particular character's appearance, e.g. Follow @DietrichFilms. Das Theater der Griechischen Antike Kostüme Theaterbauten Lage und Aufbau Theatermaschinen der Bühnenkran (mechane) und die hölzerne Plattform auf Rädern (ekkyklema) bewirkten in der Antike spektakuläre Bühneneffekte mechane= Schwerkran, der bis zu 3 Personen durch die Lüfte Some examples of Greek theatre costuming include long robes called the chiton that reached the floor for actors playing gods, heroes, and old men. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Dionysos-Theaters in Athen, und anderer griechischer Theater. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where the theatre was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honoured the god Dionysus. [citation needed] Conversely, there are scholarly arguments that death in Greek tragedy was portrayed off stage primarily because of dramatic considerations, and not prudishness or sensitivity of the audience. Welcome to an all-new era of MST3K. Oedipus after blinding himself. Buy Das griechische Theater. It was built in the 4th c. B.C. Our goal with the Klipsch Reference Premiere home theater systems is simple - blow the roof off your expectations. One man. It is impossible, however, to know with certainty how these fertility rituals became the basis for tragedy and comedy. McDonald, Marianne, Walton, J. Michael (editors). Plays often began in the morning and lasted into the evening. Verlauf der Tragödienwettbewerbe 3.1 Auftreten der Schauspieler 3.2 Zusammensetzung des Publikums 4. [2], The classical Greeks valued the power of spoken word, and it was their main method of communication and storytelling. The Bridge Theatre is operated by London Theatre Company Productions Limited (registered in England and Wales, Company number 1037977, registered office 7 Savoy Court, London, WC2R 0EX) (registered in England and Wales, Company number 1037977, registered office 7 Savoy Court, London, WC2R 0EX) [8] Aristotle claimed that Aeschylus added the second actor (deuteragonist), and that Sophocles introduced the third (tritagonist). Limelight, first theatrical spotlight, also a popular term for the incandescent calcium oxide light invented by Thomas Drummond in 1816. Physics and mathematics played a significant role in the construction of these theaters, as their designers had to be able to create acoustics in them such that the actors' voices could be heard throughout the theatre, including the very top row of seats. Von W. Dörpfeld und E. Reisch. Ancient Greek Drama thrived in Greece between the 6th and 2nd century BC in Athens and originated from Orphic Mysteries, the religious practices of the Ancient Greek and Hellenistic period. The Hammer Theatre is a distinctive, high-quality performance venue in the heart of downtown San José. Most of the evidence comes from only a few vase paintings of the 5th century BC, such as one showing a mask of the god suspended from a tree with decorated robe hanging below it and dancing and the Pronomos vase,[15] which depicts actors preparing for a Satyr play. Juliusz Słowacki Theatre (Polish: Teatr im. Theatre of Thera It is the first theater built in France. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where the theatre was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honoured the god Dionysus. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Herodotus reports that "the Athenians made clear their deep grief for the taking of Miletus in many ways, but especially in this: when Phrynichus wrote a play entitled "The Fall of Miletus" and produced it, the whole theatre fell to weeping; they fined Phrynichus a thousand drachmas for bringing to mind a calamity that affected them so personally and forbade the performance of that play forever. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Buy affordable domain names. Funktion 3.1 Drama 3.2 Gesellschaftliche Funktion 4. Suggest as a translation of "griechische Theater" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee. In some theatres, behind the orchestra was a backdrop or scenic wall known as the skené. Only 2-3 actors were allowed on the stage at one time, and masks permitted quick transitions from one character to another. The power of Athens declined following its defeat in the Peloponnesian War against the Spartans. Daily 09.00-21.00 Tragedy and comedy were viewed as completely separate genres, and no plays ever merged aspects of the two. Sadly, we don't have the actual music or understand what compositions were most popular. One of New Comedy's most important contributions was its influence on Roman comedy, an influence that can be seen in the surviving works of Plautus and Terence. Schauspieler 5.1 Inszenierungen 6. We are eager to see it operating again! [5] Thus, Thespis's true contribution to drama is unclear at best, but his name has been given a longer life, in English, as a common term for performer — i.e., a "thespian.". This was organized possibly to foster loyalty among the tribes of Attica (recently created by Cleisthenes). The theater at Delphi is build further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo and it presented the seated audience with a spectacular view of the entire sanctuary below and the valley beyond. For example, characters of higher class would be dressed in nicer clothing, although everyone was dressed fairly nicely. He was the first poet we know of to use a historical subject – his Fall of Miletus, produced in 493-2, chronicled the fate of the town of Miletus after it was conquered by the Persians. Wyoming County Cultural Center Inc. Chair Yoga via Zoom Aug 3, 2020 - Dec 11, 2020 » Click Here to Learn More. Apparently the Greek playwrights never used more than three actors based on what is known about Greek theatre.[9]. The theaters were built on a large scale to accommodate a large number of people on stage and in the audience—up to fourteen thousand[which?]. After 425 BC a stone scene wall, called a paraskenia, became a common supplement to skênê. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Das griechische Theater - Inwieweit beeinflusst das Theater die Bevölkerung Gliederung 1. The mask-makers were called skeuopoios or "maker of the props," thus suggesting that their role encompassed multiple duties and tasks. Beginning in a first competition in 486 BC each playwright submitted a comedy. Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Anatolia.It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy.Greek tragedy is widely believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, and it heavily influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. The theatron was the seating area, built into a hill to create a natural viewing space. Built with local Parnassus’ limestone, Delphi Theatre seats around 5000 spectators and it is found above the Temple of Apollo. We can trace the history of theater as far back as 700BC and the Ancient Greek civilization. In a large open-air theatre, like the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, the classical masks were able to create a sense of dread in the audience creating large scale panic, especially since they had intensely exaggerated facial features and expressions. Designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC, it seats up to 15000 spectators and it is renowned for its stupendous acoustics. However, the primary Hellenistic theatrical form was not tragedy but 'New Comedy', comic episodes about the lives of ordinary citizens. Tragedy (late 500 BC), comedy (490 BC), and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. The coryphaeus was the head chorus member, who could enter the story as a character able to interact with the characters of a play. The most Remarkable & Safe Holidays at Amathus Limassol. Male actors playing female roles would wear a wooden structure on their chests (posterneda) to imitate the look of breasts and another structure on their stomachs (progastreda) to make them appear softer and more lady like. The history of the Greek Theatre dates to 1882, when Colonel Griffith J. Griffith, came to America from South Wales to seek fortune in gold mining. Ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from 600 BC. Others suggest a strong link with the rituals performed in the worship of Dionysos such as the sacrifice of goats - a song ritual called trag-ōdia - and the wearing of masks. They were called the "prohedria" and reserved for priests and a few most respected citizens. Theater 3. [16] Greek mask-maker, Thanos Vovolis, suggests that the mask serves as a resonator for the head, thus enhancing vocal acoustics and altering its quality. Greek Theatre History . Logeion: A Journal of Ancient Theatre with free access which publishes original scholarly articles including its reception in modern theatre, literature, cinema and the other art forms and media, as well as its relation to the theatre of other periods and geographical regions. By Thespis' time, the dithyramb had evolved far away from its cult roots. The exact origins of tragedy (tragōida) are debated amongst scholars. Being a winner of the first theatrical contest held in Athens, he was the exarchon, or leader,[4] of the dithyrambs performed in and around Attica, especially at the rural Dionysia. For these reasons, among many others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. Your website awaits at, a trusted registrar since 2003. Mit ... Tafeln, etc by Wilhelm Doerpfeld, Emil Reisch (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. This leads to increased energy and presence, allowing for the more complete metamorphosis of the actor into his character.[20]. And just to mention that in summer 2011 the masterpiece hosted in Old Vic Theater “Richard III” with Kevin Spacey honoured the Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus: Dodona (Δωδώνᾱ) in Epirus was an oracular center devoted to Mother Goddess and, according Aristotles, the birthplace of Greek civilization. Der Aetna wolkenverhangen kümmert sich das zu Füssen des Vulkans liegende 2000 jährige Griechische Theater nicht um ebensolches. our of local Parnassus limestone and was remodeled several times subsequently. We even know that the Greeks enjoyed musicals! Theatre of Telmessus, Fethiye, Muğla Province; Theatre of Troy, Çanakkale Province; See also. Linguee., Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2019, Articles with disputed statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikisource has original works on the topic: Easterling, Patricia Elizabeth; Hall, Edith (eds.). Odeon; Ancient Greek architecture; Theatre of ancient Greece This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 08:58 (UTC). 2700 North Vermont Avenue Los Angeles, California 90027 1-844-LAGREEK Juliusza Słowackiego w Krakowie) is a 19th-century Eclectic theatre-opera house in the heart of Kraków, Poland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Erected in 1893, it was modeled after some of the best European Baroque and Eclectic theatres such as the Palais Garnier in Paris. [3], Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens around the time of 532 BC, when Thespis was the earliest recorded actor. Actors playing Goddesses and women characters that held a lot of power wore purples and golds. Drummond’s light, which consisted of a block of calcium oxide heated to incandescence in jets of burning oxygen and hydrogen, provided a soft, very brilliant By the end of the 5th century BC, around the time of the Peloponnesian War, the skênê was two stories high. © 2010-2018 Cycladia. Die Actors playing Queens and Princesses wore long cloaks that dragged on the ground and were decorated with gold stars and other jewels, and warriors were dressed in a variety of armor and wore helmets adorned with plumes. The death of a character was always heard behind the skênê, for it was considered inappropriate to show a killing in view of the audience. 413: This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 02:40. The name of the theatre (sikyon: Σικυών), meaning cucumber in Greek, derives from the extensive production of cucurbitaceous in the area! This etymology indicates a link with the practices of the ancient Dionysian cults. !Sikyon Theater is used nowadays at times in order to host specific events. We melded more than 70 years of engineering expertise with state-of-the-art tech to create a home theater system that will have you falling in love with … EN. Ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from 600 BC. Because of these, Thespis is often called the "Father of Tragedy"; however, his importance is disputed, and Thespis is sometimes listed as late as 16th in the chronological order of Greek tragedians; the statesman Solon, for example, is credited with creating poems in which characters speak with their own voice, and spoken performances of Homer's epics by rhapsodes were popular in festivals prior to 534 BC. The only extant playwright from the period is Menander. The upper story was called the episkenion. Get help 7 days a week from the best customer support in the business. This could justify, as a transposition, the recurrence of the pediment with the later solidified stone scene.[13]. Grundschema (Ablauf) 5. Until the Hellenistic period, all tragedies were unique pieces written in honour of Dionysus and played only once, so that today we primarily have the pieces that were still remembered well enough to have been repeated when the repetition of old tragedies became fashionable (the accidents of survival, as well as the subjective tastes of the Hellenistic librarians later in Greek history, also played a role in what survived from this period). The centre-piece of the annual Dionysia, which took place once in winter and once in spring, was a competition between three tragic playwrights at the Theatre of Dionysus. Colonel Griffith settled in Los Angeles and purchased the Los Feliz Rancho, which he later donated to the City of Los Angeles in 1896. Socrates himself believed that once something has been written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. Under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Arion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre. The festival was created roughly around 508 BC. Organisation lag in staatlicher Hand Vorbereitung des Wettbewerbs ca. Entstehung 2. This practice would become common after the advent of "New Comedy," which incorporated dramatic portrayal of individual character. They would also wear white body stockings under their costumes to make their skin appear fairer. "[6] He is also thought to be the first to use female characters (though not female performers).[7]. As its name indicates, it was built on the Fourvière Hill. Boasting breathtaking sea views,the theatre could accommodate around 1500 spectators either Santorini inhabitants, travelers or people from neighbouring islands. Therefore, performance in ancient Greece did not distinguish the masked actor from the theatrical character. This century is normally regarded as the Golden Age of Greek drama. There were often tall, arched entrances called parodoi or eisodoi, through which actors and chorus members entered and exited the orchestra. Bahn and Bahn write, "To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing and infinitely preferable to the dead symbols of a written language." Watch trailers & learn more. Aufbau eines Theaters 3. From that time on, the theatre started performing old tragedies again. Open menu. The theatre serves the city's community and San Jose State University through high-quality programming including music, theatre, educational lectures and other performing arts expressive of the unique characteristics and diverse cultures that comprise Silicon Valley. The actors with comedic roles only wore a thin soled shoe called a sock. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. A crisp Benjamin Franklin will get you your own private movie theater. Kabuki theater is still commonly used by Western political pundits across the political spectrum.Kabuki, Kabuki theater, and Kabuki dance are used interchangeably in punditry. Publication date 1896 Topics genealogy Publisher Barth & von Hirst Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of University of Michigan Some is known about Phrynichus. Worn by the chorus, the masks created a sense of unity and uniformity, while representing a multi-voiced persona or single organism and simultaneously encouraged interdependency and a heightened sensitivity between each individual of the group. [19] Due to the visual restrictions imposed by these masks, it was imperative that the actors hear in order to orient and balance themselves. After the Great Destruction of Athens by the Persian Empire in 480 BCE, the town of Agios Prokopios and acropolis were rebuilt, and theatre became formalized and an even greater part of Athenian culture and civic pride. Masks were also made for members of the chorus, who play some part in the action and provide a commentary on the events in which they are caught up. All rights reserved. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Die Entstehung des griechischen Theater 2. The actors in these plays that had tragic roles wore boots called cothurni that elevated them above the other actors. STAVROS NIARCHOS FOUNDATION CULTURAL CENTER 364 Syggrou Avenue, Kallithea. While no drama texts exist from the sixth century BC, we do know the names of three competitors besides Thespis: Choerilus, Pratinas, and Phrynichus. The theatre, among the most well preserved ancient theatres, was built by the king of Epirus, King Pirros, during the 3rd century BC. Although its theatrical traditions seem to have lost their vitality, Greek theatre continued into the Hellenistic period (the period following Alexander the Great's conquests in the fourth century BCE). Das griechische Alphabet (altgriechisch ἑλληνικός ἀλφάβητος hellēnikós alphábētos; neugriechisch ελληνικό αλφάβητο ellinikó alfávito, auch ελληνική αλφαβήτα ellinikí alfavíta) ist die Schrift, in der die griechische Sprache seit dem 9. Vervain and Wiles posit that this small size discourages the idea that the mask functioned as a megaphone, as originally presented in the 1960s. Euripides 1. Required fields are marked *. Indeed, Dionysos became known as the god of theatre and perhaps … Costumes were supposed to be colourful and obvious to be easily seen by every seat in the audience. He produced tragedies on themes and subjects later exploited in the golden age such as the Danaids, Phoenician Women and Alcestis. [18] Effectively, the mask transformed the actor as much as memorization of the text. The term "theatre" eventually came to mean to the whole area of theatron, orchestra, and skené. Tsitsiridis, Stavros, "Greek Mime in the Roman Empire (P.Oxy. Box Office: +30 213 0885700. Ancient Corinth was a city-state of antiquity. geschrieben wird. Built around 500 BC on the south slope of Acropolis the Theatre of Dionysus is the first theatre to have been constructed in the world and the oldest one in Greece. The word τραγῳδία ('tragoidia'), from which the word "tragedy" is derived, is a compound of two Greek words: τράγος (tragos) or "goat" and ᾠδή (ode) meaning "song", from ἀείδειν (aeidein), "to sing". There were several scenic elements commonly used in Greek theater: The Ancient Greek term for a mask is prosopon (lit., "face"),[14] and was a significant element in the worship of Dionysus at Athens, likely used in ceremonial rites and celebrations. There were only male actors, but masks allowed them to play female characters. Although there are twelve or fifteen members of the tragic chorus they all wear the same mask because they are considered to be representing one character. Enter your email address below to receive the Dietrich Theater Newsletter. Most ancient Greek cities lay on or near hills, so seating was generally built into the slope of a hill, producing a natural viewing area known as the theatron (literally "seeing place"). A stone built theatre representing the place where Greek tragedywas born. Three bots. Wir haben die Top 5 der besten griechische Mythologie Filme ausgewählt, die du dir unbedingt anschauen musst. These paintings never show actual masks on the actors in performance; they are most often shown being handled by the actors before or after a performance, that liminal space between the audience and the stage, between myth and reality. Each submitted three tragedies, plus a satyr play (a comic, burlesque version of a mythological subject). Aischylos 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. The dramatic performances were important to the Athenians – this is made clear by the creation of a tragedy competition and festival in the City Dionysia. Allgemeines - entstanden 550 v. Ch. Each is credited with different innovations in the field. Your email address will not be published. Originally unraised, Greek theatre would later incorporate a raised stage for easier viewing. The name of the theatre (sikyon: Σικυών), meaning cucumber in Greek, derives from the extensive production of cucurbitaceous in the area! Aufbau der Theaterstätten 3. [16] No physical evidence remains available to us, as the masks were made of organic materials and not considered permanent objects, ultimately being dedicated at the altar of Dionysus after performances. Aufbau & Merkmale einer Tragödie 8. The orchestra was a circular piece of ground at the bottom of the theatron where the chorus and actors performed. In cities without suitable hills, banks of earth were piled up. The mouth opening was relatively small, preventing the mouth being seen during performances. Sophokles 7. !Sikyon Theater is used nowadays at times in order to host specific events. The biggest source of information is the Pronomos Vase where actors are painted at a show's after party. More precisely,tragedy, comedy and satyr drama were the 3 kinds of theatre played in Ancient Greece during the festival of Dionysus, an event held in honour of God Dionysus, the famous God of wine, festivity and ecstasy. Das griechische Theater: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Dionysos-theaters in Athen und anderer ... by Wilhelm Dörpfeld , Emil Reisch. [1] During the era when the Ancient Greek Drama flourished, the remarkable list of performance venues that were constructed to host the masterpieces of this great art comprised of 4 mainparts: the orchestra (the dancing space), the skene (the scene), the theatron ((θέατρονAncient Theaters. Thalia is the muse of comedy and is similarly associated with the mask of comedy and the comedic "socks". Some have linked the rise of the genre, which began in Athens, to the earlier art form, the lyrical performance of epic poetry. in Athen aus einem Maskenball - bis 500 n. Ch. Numerous theatre groups and worldwide prestigious actors have presented their plays in Epidaurus Ancient Theatre. Some theatres also had a raised speaking place on the orchestra called the logeion. Melpomene is the muse of tragedy and is often depicted holding the tragic mask and wearing cothurni. Nevertheless, the mask is known to have been used since the time of Aeschylus and considered to be one of the iconic conventions of classical Greek theatre.[17]. And a vault of B movies just begging for witty riffs. ISBN: 3534060768 9783534060764: OCLC Number: 611165802: Description: XVIII, 549 Seiten : Illustrationen ; 22 cm. Thus, it is believed that the ears were covered by substantial amounts of hair and not the helmet-mask itself. wurden sie geschrieben - mehrstündige The paraskenia was a long wall with projecting sides, which may have had doorways for entrances and exits. A theatre in the Ancient Thera town in Santorini which was constructed in the 3rd century BC and it is nowadays under restoration. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies. New inventions during the classical period, Representation of women in Athenian tragedy, Chorus of the elderly in classical Greek drama, "Rites of Passage in Ancient Greece: Literature, Religion, Society", Ancient Greek theatre history and articles, Drama lesson 1: The ancient Greek theatre, The Ancient Theatre Archive, Greek and Roman theatre architecture, Searchable database of monologues for actors from Ancient Greek Theatre. Contrary to popular belief, they did not dress in only rags and sandals, as they wanted to impress. [20] They enabled an actor to appear and reappear in several different roles, thus preventing the audience from identifying the actor to one specific character. 1/2 Jahr Dichter für Tragödienwettberwerb mussten Tetralogie vorlegen -> aus 4 Stücken Dichter für Komödienwettbewerb mussten 1 Werk vorlegen für jeden Wettbewerb 1 Schiedsrichter Zuschauer Chor ->alle Sozialen [12], A temple nearby, especially on the right side of the scene, is almost always part of the Greek theatre complex. Theatre of Fourvière is a Roman theater, built at the behest of Caesar Augustus in Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France) in about 15 BCE. The first seats in Greek theatres (other than just sitting on the ground) were wooden, but around 499 BC the practice of inlaying stone blocks into the side of the hill to create permanent, stable seating became more common. According to Greek mythology, Delphi was the site of the Delphic Oracle and it was considered as the navel (center) of the world- the “Omphalos” of the earth! Taormina am 16.10.2011. He won his first competition between 511 BC and 508 BC. Autreten der Schauspieler Gliederung 2.Aufbau der Theaterstätte 1. Die Entwicklung der gesamten abendländischen Theaterkultur geht auf das Theater der griechischen Antike zurück und ist sowohl durch die überlieferten Dramen als auch …

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